INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACHES IN PEACE STUDIES LEVELS OF ANALYSIS: FROM INDIVIDUAL TO GENERAL

Editors:
David Schwartz 
Daniel Galily
Binyamin Gurstein


PUBLISHING COMPLEX – UNWE SOFIA, 2020
 

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PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION
Conflict resolution studies penetrate many areas of our lives. It copses with social and political interaction. Conflict of interest characterizes both individual and social groups. Some scientists claim that conflicts are an integral part of our lives as social creatures and therefore we must include them as a part of human nature's development and progress. Others see that conflict as a temporary issue that will disappear with human future development progress. However, due to the different ontological approaches, there is some ground for common points regarding the roots of conflicts they appear as ethnic, historical, political, economic, and many others. Beginning with the ancient Greek Philosophy and Mythology, through variable religious conceptions and ending with the newest research in philosophy, psychology, and political science. All of them questioned the nature of conflict and its resolution. Many fields of human wisdom agreed in their vision, that conflicts are an integral part of human nature (Plato, 2002; Plato, 1971). Nowadays, social sciences and other fields of research see conflict as a process of synthesis among contradicting factors, much like merging materials in the exact sciences. More than that psychological approach supports these findings with the claim that conflicts are a part of our unconscious human perceptions (Adler, 1936; Adler, 2010; Freud, 1962, 1965,1921; Marx, Engels, 1848; Ropers, 2002).In contrast with the past century's humanistic approach nowadays centrality has been perceived by realistic thinkers. This perception sets a new aim to find methodological and empirical tools for measuring and understanding conflicts and their resolution. Those concepts set as a goal bring facts rather than giving a ruling concept or the perception of truth and justice. It is about investigating the phenomenon with various tools. Although a realistic approach provides an explanation and research tool, it is difficult to come up with solutions, and sometimes it causes more compatibility in conflict. Therefore, the purpose of the present
work is to choose a “third way” that presents a synthesis between
realistic and idealistic conceptions as described in the works of PyotrDemianovich Ouspenskii, Nikolai Berdyaev, Emanuel Kant, and many others (Berdyaev, 2002; Berdyaev, 2004; Ouspensky, 1922). There is no doubt that the current essay is not going to resolve or give a pure answer, but extensive knowledge from multidisciplinary fields such as philosophy, social and natural sciences medicine, and psychology. The main goal of the integrated interdisciplinary approach is to provide a comprehensive and broad picture that will raise more questions than provide answers. In the breath of conception stands the assumption that conflicts are investigated as collisions and as a phenomenon that requires interpretation. However, adherence is linked to creating reconciliation and transformation processes. Such perception appears in the works of great intellectuals such as Roberto Assagioli(18881974), an Italian psychiatrist and pioneer in the fields of humanistic and transpersonal psychology who discovers resolving human conflicts with an individual, John Paul Lederach who explores group conflict and develops the basis for its transformation, Martin Liner, in his approach of creating learning groups on and many others. All of these settings as a central goal the understanding of conflict and its transformation into positive paths that will serve the good of the individual and the group. Therefore, this book presents those perceptions through qualitative and quantitative research, deep empirical and methodological understanding that serves the purpose of conflict transformation (CT) both on a personal and a group level. The review addresses and takes sources from the individual level through the psychosynthesis approach, and a group level through the perception of conflict transformation inPolitical and Social science research. The current work is the co-creation of researchers from different fields in life and social sciences, medicine, clinical psychology, and philosophy. Such cooperation is set to form a foundation for further fertile research.